Health And Protection In Metallic Workshops Environmental Sciences Essay
According to the ILO, some 2.3 million workers around the world die because of work-related accidents or diseases every year. That is an average of around 6000 deaths daily. Additionally, there are around 340 million instances of occupational injuries and 160 million victims of work-related illnesses every year and repeated estimates have show a rise of incidents and ill health.
1.1 Health insurance and safety in metal workshops
Metal works has proved to be a necessity in the manufacturing, engineering and other such sectors. Since prehistoric circumstances till this modern era, metalwork has evolved right into a massive sector and gained a sizable impact on the global market. Metals are being used in a huge selection of products in this modern day time. Their use is largely dependent on their properties. For instance aluminium is utilized in making of automobiles, whereas iron is employed in the construction sector. In this contemporary world, nobody can declare that he doesn’t have a piece of metal in the home or has never experienced dependence on some metal work at any occasion.
Metal consumption on the globe, as the other solutions is rising rapidly. That is because of the growth in human population and rising wealth (Norgate T.E and Rankin W.J, 2002). This upsurge in demand has led to an increase in the number of metal workshops around the globe. Its effect can even be felt in Mauritius. Metal workshops have become up like mushrooms all around the island, to meet the demand of the marketplace for more metal functions. How many people have ever before wondered how and in what circumstances metal work has been performed?
Most formal enterprises abide by the existing legislations governing medical and security in Mauritius, the Occupational Protection and Health Act 2005 also known as the OSHA-2005 and its other relevant regulations. The employers use good safety and overall health practices which has been proved to be an enriching experience. The has been considerable decrease in the amount of absenteeism and number of accidents, resulting in less money loss in terms of non-payment of personal injury leaves, compensation, work days lost and any other legal suits.
In Mauritius, there are several small metallic workshops. Those are managed by people having little if any concept of health and safety at work. The workers are often working alone and sometimes students are used to work during institution holidays.
The people working therein are even more worried about having their salary towards the end of the month with offering much focus on their personal safety, but what would happen if the latter is normally injured or if they become so ill because of exposure to any compound that become bed ridden as well as die? What will be the effect on the latter’s family?
1.2 Wastes in metal workshops
During machining in a metal workshop waste products is generated. Most of the waste products is from the natural material which is the steel being fabricated. The metal wastes that are generated vary greatly in type. They have different sizes and shapes ranging from large unusable bits of metal to dust contaminants. Other resources of wastes are used oil, grease, wood, chemical substances, color containers, grinding discs, applied electrodes (from arc-welding), solvents and other office products such as for example paper. Accumulation of these may pose as a hazard to health and safety of the personnel within the workshop and in addition affect the surroundings.
1.3 Problem assertion:
The alarming rise in the amount of crashes in working environment reveals some without the management of health insurance and safety at the place of work. A steel workshop is a location filled with hazards and if precautionary measures are not taken, these may bring about incidents or accidents.
Also if wastes are not being managed properly, it may cause harm to the surroundings and for the business itself it is money lost regarding unused material and it needs a spot to be removed. Some employers do not know about how to get rid of the components and in informal sectors some enterprises dump all of the wastes that are not used by the municipal waste products carriers.
The study will first of all provide an analysis of how health insurance and safety is being managed in metallic workshops and can provide remedial measures to be able to reduce the number of accidents.
The second purpose of the study is to give a knowledge of how wastes from metal workshops are being maintained also to provide recommendations in order to improve the efficiency in the waste products management practices. It will focus primarily on the wastes generated in the metal workshops only.
Identify the sources of
health and security hazards,
Identify the impacts of
health and safety hazards on the workers and,
waste on the environment
Identify how the
health and safety and,
wastes are being managed
Assess the level of awareness related to
Health and safety, and
health and safety administration and,
Provide recommendation on better ways to manage
health and security and,
2.0 Literature review
2.1 What’s health and safety?
Health and safety is actually the provision and protection of a secure working environment.
2.2 Health insurance and safety in the informal sector
For this study, security and health in metal workshops could be classified within the informal sector. The ILO released the idea of informal sector around 25 years back. In 1972, an ILO employment mission record in Kenya found that migration from countryside to places led to urban unemployment. This is why why rural migrants and urban dwellers discover employment in the tiny scale and micro-level production and distribution of merchandise and services. These generally unrecognised, unrecorded and unregulated small-scale actions constitute the informal sector.
According to the ILO, the informal can be characterised as a range of economical units in the urban areas, which are largely operated and owned sometimes in partnership with people of the same family or by individuals only. It employs one or more employees on a continuous basis furthermore to unpaid family worker and/or informal workers. The employer-employee romance is often certainly not in written and informal with no or little appreciation of workers’ rights industrial relations. The functions performed are typically labour intensive and need low-level skills. Typically they operate on a small-scale with no or very little level of organisation. They are involved in the development and distribution of goods and services with key objective of generating employment and basic cash flow.
In Mauritius, all organisations that happen to be known and authorized as forming the main formal sector, have to adhere to the norms and methods established for them by the various authorities. They are put through regular inspections by the various institutes to screen their degree of compliance and in case there is abnormalities; they may subjected to fines and other styles of penalties. On the other hand, unregistered organisations form the main informal sector. So, imaginable that the small steel workshop at the part of the street where you live forms part of the informal sector and its existence might not exactly even be recognized to the authorities. Have you ever thought about how precisely many such workshops are in Mauritius? The amount of persons working therein and the amount of safety?
2.3 The norms
Section 5 of the OSHA-2005 stipulates an employer gets the responsibility to ensure as far as is fairly practicable the safety, health insurance and welfare at work of most his employees.
It also includes the next;
The employer shall provide and maintain an operating environment and any plant or system of work and make sure that any place of work is definitely under his control, incorporating gain access to and egress therein.
He should be sure the safety and wellness of the employees during use, handling, storage space or transportation or components and substances.
He should provide and maintain facilities and plans for the welfare at the job of his employees.
He should guarantee the provision of facts, instruction, training and supervision as necessary for the safety and health and wellbeing of the employees.
He shall also make certain that any person not in his occupation is not subjected to any risk to his safe practices and health.
Section 13 of the OSHA-2005 stipulates that any self-employed person shall conduct his work in such a way in order to ensure the health and protection of his staff and any other individuals who could be affected.
2.4 Compliance with the norms
The creation of a safe working environment starts off by oneself. Health insurance and safety exists in Mauritius but was not paid a heed few years ago because many individuals were not even aware of its existence. It is now that people are becoming more aware about it. Non-compliance with OSHA-2005 means contravention and can be an offence which can be punishable by Law. Based on the Act, any offence beneath the Act may be punished by a fine of not more than Rs.75, 000 and an imprisonment of not more than one year.
Although the conditions of the Work are set out in simple English, it is extremely difficult to apply it as requires serious investments and the company become less ready to invest because they find it annoying and not profitable to abide by set standards. The authorized enterprises are frequently visited by relevant authorities that ensure that the norms happen to be being respected.
2.5 Metallic fabrication process
Metal fabrication techniques involve raw materials and selection of tools to give shape to desired metal products. These processes could be categorized into cold, warm and hot working based on the temperature they are being processed. Hot working may be the process that depends on control heat applied to change the physical real estate of the metal part and cold working is the application of direct physical pressure (U.S. Environmental Protection Organization (EPA), 1995). Metals can be found in the daily standard objects such as for example paper clips, computer systems, bolts, nails, and vehicle parts, parts used for instruments and machinery and various other products also to transform metals in these things, metals pass through a number of manufacturing procedures such as for example cutting, forming, and completing, bending, punching, drilling, turning, grinding and threading. (Johnson, 2008)
The main procedures in metallic fabrication are the following:
2.5.1 Metal Forming
Forging: is the procedure for working metal with applying force to provide shape to the metallic, this include the utilization of forging hammer or drop hammer, press forging, forging machine such as for example drop hammer, screw press, crank press, hydraulic press.
Rolling: is the process whereby compressive force is applied on long
metalwork to lessen the thickness its cross section, this cane be achieved either by hot rolling or cool rolling procedures.
Extrusion: may be the process where ruthless is used to force a metallic block or billet to move through o die orifice whereby the metallic is reduced in cross section. Extrusion is employed to give cylindrical formed or hollow bars of metal. The quantity of forced required during the process is huge hence metals are usually hot extruded.
Bending: is a adaptable process to deform steel changing its shape, the metal can be stressed beyond the yield drive but lesser than its tensile power which is done by of applying push through hydraulic, pneumatic and electric machines.
Spinning: is an activity that generates rotationally symmetrical hollow parts, hemispheres, cones and cylinders shapes. Generally metallic spinning is a chilly process completed by manual, automated or hydraulic equipment.
Conventional shearing: may be the process used to cut direct lines on flat steel sheet stock.
Turret Punching: is normally a Laptop Numerically Controlled (CNC) method use to create hole in metal sheet. This is a cold process where the metal properties are unchanged since they are not exposed to thermal impact.
2.5.3 Material Removal
Sawing: may be the process whereby an instrument with tooth blade is employ to cut metal. This is a basic method of cutting metals into preferred pieces and with time the easy handsaw has been crafted into different saws such as for example horizontal band saws, vertical band saws, pivot arm band saws, plate/block band saws, steel circular saws, non ferrous circular saws, and electric power hacksaws.
Turning: is the process where the diameter is reduced by removal of the external part of a rotating steel work piece.
Drilling: is the procedure to pierce hole in metallic work part n accordance to the specification of the desired bore or ream.
Milling: is the process in which a rotating cutter is make use of to cut the metal which is certainly fed against the rotating cutter.
Grinding: is the process whereby there is certainly removal of metal by abrasion from bar or billet stock surfaces.
2.5.4 Advance Methods
Laser cutting: is the process where metal is certainly vaporized in a well defined area; the slicing source is quite small which allows small lower widths. The laser beam could be use to cut very difficult or abrasive metals and is very cost effective since you will find a low operating and repair cost.
Waterjet Machining: in this technique a water aircraft cutter is used as instrument to slice metal with a plane of water under a high velocity and pressure. The cutter is normally place at the nozzle where drinking water will be ejected under high pressure, bombarding the metal trimming it with the huge water speed.
Electrical Discharge Machining(EMD): is the process which is also referred to as spark erosion, whereby electricity is used to eliminate metal this result in shapes that cannot be made by other machining procedure on thin metal piece.
Wire Discharge Machining (WEMD): is a far more precise procedure for cutting metal where electrical energy and a small diameter cooper or brass wire is used. Generally this can be a computer numerically controlled (CNC) process.
2.5.5 Welding and Joining
Arc Welding: is the process where a welding power is made between an electrode the steel that need to get welded. During welding a shielding gas (inert or semi inert gases) or filler metals are being used as a cover. The fusion procedure takes destination to bond the desired parts of metals by high powerful warmth, whereby the metals melt on heat to mix collectively and on cooling they solidify to form a metallurgical bond.
Shielded Metallic Arc Welding (SMAW): in this process a stick welding is used which is coated whit flux that generates the gas shield as safety. Here as well the fusion of the metallic is done by melting produced by the heat of the arc between your covered electrode and the metal piece.
Laser Beam Welding (LBW): is the process whereby metals will be radiated by a concentrated beam of coherent light to melt the desired parts. As in arc welding it is safeguarded by inert gases.
Gas-metallic Arc welding(GMAW)or (MIG) : a process which is mostly referred to as Metal Inert Gas welding done with the application of a cable and electrode in which a a power arc is generated to melt the wire to feed the weld puddle. A movement of inert gas is normally make use of as shield.
Fluxed cored Arc welding (FCWA): the procedure often called fluxed cored uses a long continuous solid cable integrated in the welding gun. The cable is coated with flux that makes the arc, additives to weld and slag. The shield is definitely a mixture of skin tightening and and inert gas and massive amount fume is produced.
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW): the procedure involve the application of tungsten electrode to create the electric power arc. In this process the electrode isn’t consumed as in (SMAW). The gas shielding is certainly a mixture of argon and helium no metal filler may be use.
Electroslag Welding (ESW): in this process the signing up for of the metal is performed by passing electric energy in a molten conductive slag that heating up the filler and metallic. This technique is generally use to become listed on very thick metal
2.6 Health effects
Hazardous materials will tend to be found in a metallic fabrication. These can straight or indirectly affect the fitness of the staff either by call or absorption in your body. In addition when assessing the potential overall health effects with those components that the staff are exposed to, it is important to comprehend the difference between toxicity and hazards.
Toxicity is the ability of a specific substance to create an undesirable effect when the chemical has reached a sufficient concentration at a particular area of the body.
Hazards is the likelihood that concentration of the chemical in your body will likely that occurs.
However, a material can be quite dangerous however, not hazardous to its publicity. It all depend whether it’s properly handled rather than contacting with your body. On the other side, a material could be low toxic but very hazardous to health and safety.
2.7 Routes of entry:
The four common routes of entry are as follows:
Inhalation via respiratory track
Skin get in touch with via dermal contact
Ingestion through the digestive system
2.7.1 Inhalation via respiratory track:
It is a situation where the body is taking components within the body by breathing. That is the most typical mean by which chemical particles enter the body. These contaminants are likely to have both severe and chronic effects. Sucking in of these toxic substances in most cases is likely to cause damage to the mucous membrane of the mouth, throat, lungs and circulatory program. These can happen for instance during welding where fumes happen to be generated.
2.7.2 Skin contact via dermal contact:
The skin may be the most significant organ of the body and protection against radiation, high temperature and abrasion and works as a barrier to chemicals and bacteria. Skin contact is known as the primary route of entry in to the body. Connection with hazardous substances may damage your skin. There are a number of conditions which may be caused by exposure to the different substances ranging from minor irritations to ulceration and tumor.
2.7.3 Ingestion through the digestive system:
This is the least common kind of publicity in occupational environment, but can occur as a due to carelessness or poor personal hygiene we.e. when the employees eat or drink in the workplace or without washing their hands. In metallic workshops the workers will probably ingest the metal particles that can be entirely on their hands or deposited on their food.
This occurs when substances are absorbed immediately through cuts or personal injury with contaminated sharp items. In metal workshops cuts and bruises are most likely to occur during handling of the resources. Normally, these small incidents are usually not taken into consideration because of its nature as the functions aren’t affected by it, however the danger is that by certainly not taking care of it, an infection might occur having significant effect on the employees health, hence affecting are well.
2.8 Physical hazards
Sound is normally a vibration that could be perceived by ear similarly noise is definitely perceived by the hearing but as an unwanted sound. A more appropriate definition noises is any disturbance developed within a range of frequency (NIOSH, 1991). Noise arises during virtually all activity done by human being, when measuring the impact on human health noise is usually categorized under occupational noise or environmental sound (WHO, 2004).
Noise is generated by nearly every equipment, machine or instrument used in metal fabrication industry example motors, gears, belts and pulleys, point of procedure during trimming, welding and vibrations of footing and tools or little bit of metal being worked. Noises can be controlled when you are in collection to the hierarchy of control, in first instance by good maintenance of machines, equipments and tools and by applying engineering controlled such as for example isolation, stabilizing and damping. To help expand reduce sound segregation control may be opted so that the very least number of employees could be affected, the equipments could be enclosed so as a lot of noise is certainly absorbed or reflected within barriers. Hearing safeguard equipment may be provided to employees depending on the nature of the operations such as protection for metallic grinder, welding and sheet metal fabrication. Last but not the least it’s the management responsibility to make sure and implement an efficient hearing conservation method. ( AmTrust Financial, n.d)
2.8.2 Heat stress
Heat stress is said to be a serious kind of physical hazard that should be considered in metal workshops especially during summer periods. It occurs when employees do some procedures in high air temperatures, high humidity or when they are having physical contact with hot objects. While working in these conditions, workers have to wear protective apparel which is likely to cause heat pressure. (Reese, C.D, 2001)
2.8.3 Cold stress
According to NIOSH, wintry stress arises when workers who happen to be expose to chilly or working in a cold environment. When temperature goes down, thus the body maintains its temperatures by reducing blood flow through your skin. The most extreme result that the workers gets is usually on the extremities (fingertips, toes, earlobes and nasal area).when fingers become wintry they turn into numb and insensitive and this may increased the probability of having accidents at work.(Reese,C.D,2001)
Radiation could be classified based on the effects that it developed to the problem. There two types of radiation which happen to be ionizing and non
ionizing. (ILO, n.d)Ionizing radiation is made by high voltage devices that can be present in metal workshops that may affect the employees. (NIOSH.n.d). Non ionizing radiation is usually a type of electromagnetic radiation that can have various influence on the body, which rely upon the on this wavelength of the radiation being engaged. (Reese, C.D, 2001)
Vibrating tools and the gear that are being utilized at frequencies between 40 and 90 hertz can cause harm to the circulatory and the nervous systems. One of the most common Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) results from vibration is the Raynaud’s Syndrome. It is the most frequent symptoms leading to numbness and tingling in the finger this is the skin turns pale, ashen and wintry, and thus this causes eventual loss of feeling and the control in the fingertips and hands. (Reese, C.D, 2001)
2.8.6 Confine space
In 1979, the National Institute for Occupational Basic safety and Overall health (NIOSH) published a Standards Document providing advice for employed in confined spaces where it defines confine space as a space where the design features limited openings for the entry as well as for the exit. The types of confine space will be tunnel, manhole, utility vaults, storage area tanks and silos. There are different fatalities that might occur in a confine space where loss of life might occur from different causes such as asphyxiation, the inhalation of toxic gases or vapors, drowning, falling, from explosions, or connection with either mechanical or electrical energy.
2.9 Ergonomic hazards
Working posture is vital when employees are doing their example of a polar covalent bond careers in a place of work. Poor working position is said to be an ergonomic hazards as it can cause fatigue, irritation and harm risk in the functioning environment when employees are doing repetitive do the job, the utilization of force plus the duration of the task. A few examples are outstretched arms, twisting, and set postures. (HSE, n.d).
2.10 Biological hazards
Biological hazards involve vermin, insects, molds, fungi, viruses, and bacterial contaminants. Personnel may get infections and parasitic ailments when they are exposed to insects or by sipping contaminated water. Dusts within the steel workshops may contain various kinds of allergenic materials that can affect their well being. (Reese, C.D, 2001)
2.11 Chemical hazards
Chemical hazards arise from the abnormal airborne concentrations of mists, vapors, gases or solids that can be found in the type of dusts and fumes. These can be way to obtain danger to the body for example these materials may become skin irritants or may be toxic by absorption through your skin.(Reese,C.D,2001) In metal workshops there are steel fluids that are being used for some kind of processes. There will vary kinds of oil product which are used in metal workshops.
2.12 Other types of hazards
2.12.1 Electrical hazards
Electricity has long been recognized as a serious workplace hazard, exposing personnel to electric powered shock, electrocution, burns, fires, and explosions. Based on the Bureau of Labor Figures of the United States, in 1999, 278 personnel died from electrocutions at work, which makes up about almost 5 percent of all on-the-job fatalities that time. As a result, they relate that almost all of these fatalities could have been easily avoided.
2.12.2 Mechanical hazards
Mechanical hazards are created by the powered operation of apparatus or tools. The applied electric power which is applied can be of either electrical or individual.( Holt, Rinehart and Winston, n.d) Machinery, its parts, tools, items and products processed or used in the work process tend gre essay to be reported to be a source of mechanical hazards leading to severe injuries. Machinery, along with power supply systems, can also create electrical hazards, leading to extreme or fatal accidents.
2.13 Hierarchy of control
The occupational security and wellbeing administration requires employers to protect their employees from workplace hazards such as for example machines, work procedures, and hazardous substances that may cause injury or ailments. There are different ways that are being used to regulate hazards.
Elimination of the hazard may be the most effective methods to control the hazard at work. Thus, at work it is important to eliminate the dangerous machines to make sure a proper functioning environment for the personnel. (Work Cover NSW, 2010)
It may be the second best approach to regulate the hazard within the place of work by replacing the unsafe gear with a safer a single. If there is an existing process, major adjustments in equipment and methods could be required to remove or substitute for a hazard. (NIOSH, n.d)
2.13.3 Engineering control
Engineering controls are being used to remove a hazard within the place of work or place a barrier between the worker and the hazard. (NIOSH, n.d).There is definitely safety guards that can be found to protect the staff while using dangerous machines. (Work Go over NSW, 2010)
2.13.4 Administrative control
It is used to control the hazard through the administrative directives. (Reese C.D, 2001). In the workplace the workers are trained how to utilize the machines safely and safety measures should be taken when operating unsafe machinery.
2.13.4 Personal protective equipment
Personal protective products (PPE) may be the last resort that can be used in the workplace. There are variety of equipment and garments that are used to protect the workers from accidental injuries. There are PPE that can protect the eyes, deal with, head, ears, ft, hands ,arms and the complete body.(Reese,C.D,2001)
3.0 What is waste?
According to the Basel Convention, waste is any compound or material that is disposed or which is intended or necessary to be removed. The material in itself is useless for the generator. Wastes may be created during extraction and processing of raw materials into final products and also during the utilization of the final products and other individual activities. (United Nations Figures Division (UNSD), n.d) Hence from the earlier mentioned definitions we can say that elements which are useless to us can be considered to be waste.
3.1 Waste administration in metal workshop
In metallic workshops, as in the various other industries, waste may very well be produced. Improper management of the wastes may result in problems. According to the Environment Protection Act 2002, all metal workshops need to have a Environment Impact Evaluation (EIA) license which obviously states the processes getting undertaken and the direct and indirect impact on the environment and any action which they propose to minimize, mitigate or control the impacts. After they have obtained the license, the workshop is certainly visited on a regular basis by the relevant authority to ensure compliance with the conditions in the EIA permit.
As mentioned previously in this study, there are several sources of waste in steel workshops. The most significant waste is from the materials being employed for processing, which may be the metal itself.
In Mauritius, all waste products except the metals happen to be sent in the municipal solid waste management system. The metal are gathered by scrap metallic carriers and dispatched for recycling. The sad portion is that this isn’t the case for all your steel workshops. The formal sector abides by this practice however the informal sector oftentimes indulges in dumping actions to dispose of the metal waste.
Metal is a natural source which is undergoing large extraction. The Club Survey and other strength crisis have cause worries of not having the ability to cope with the necessity in world’s metallic demand (Radezki, 1975).
It is important to produce a distinction between resource and reserve. A learning resource is a obviously occurring material in the earth’s crust whereas a reserve may be the part of an determined resource that can be extracted or produced during determination. Globe reserves of aluminium and iron will be approximated at 3,910 and 65,000 Mt respectively, while the world resources of these metals are approximated at 11,000 and 230,000 Mt respectively (Norgate T.E and Rankin W.J, 2002 cited Dzioubinski and Chipman, 1999; US Bureau of Mines, 1995). According to the World Bank file, the reserves for iron ore would carry on for around 50 years and for copper and bauxite 29 years (Dr. Diederen A good.M, 2009;Radetzki, 1975). It has led to an increasing concern for reference conservation and also environmental cover as the waste tends to pollute the surroundings. Thus, the idea of recyclability of materials is used to recycle the metallic.
It is usually to be noted that no study has been carried out so far to judge how waste is being managed in steel workshops in Mauritius. Hence, we don’t have much information obtainable in this field; that is among one of the explanations why we chose this research. This research can also be used as a foundation for other people conducting analysis in the same field.
Research methods are the several modus-operandi that is used in a study. (Rajasekar et al, 2006). They include theoretical procedures and experimental analyses among numerous others. Choosing and applying a proper research method is essential as it will evaluate and use the research results which is often valuable to native or overseas organisation or countries along with its the method chosen that will assist us to meet with our objectives and consequently come up with vital discussions which may improve things.
Research Approach and Design:
According to Burns and Grove (1993: 777), a quantitative research can be explained as a formal and systematic procedure to spell it out the test relationships and examine trigger and their interactions on variables. Furthermore, a survey is used to acquire data from a huge population which are to observe directly ( Mouton 1996: 232). Quantitative research – It really is established on the evaluation of amount or amount. It is only applicable to concerns whereby the benefits obtained could be expressed when it comes to quantity its main benefits is that it permits comparisons between organizations and areas of study as well as it can make clear and analyse dependencies between interpersonal issues.
Qualitative research – “Qualitative methods” can be an umbrella term to covers the methods and techniques which haven’t been able to come to be “quantitative”. (Eshlagy et al, 2011) Qualitative methods will be particularly used for three primary concepts.
Qualitative exploration epistemologies which will be non-oriented proof.
Qualitative research strategies happen to be to interpret the relevant info rather than simply analysing and evaluating.
Qualitative research techniques can’t fall into numerical categories.
Another advantage of qualitative methods is the usage of open-ended questions gives participants the chance to answer in their own words. Open-ended issues will come up with responses that happen to be:
Significantly visible to the participant
Unforeseen by the researcher
Affluent and analytical in nature
For this analysis, an quantitative approach will be applied via an interview with the procedure engineer and an observation done by the group associates which would further more acquired data.